Table 1. Definition of cost categories of REDD+ projects in this study.

Cost Categories Definition Inclusion
Opportunity costs Costs resulting from the forgone benefits that deforestation would have generated for livelihoods and the national economy. Not included.
Set-up costs Costs necessary for the implementers to establish or start a REDD+ project, taking it from design to implementation. Information search and design (e.g., carbon stocks, deforestation modeling, socioeconomic characteristics), negotiation, certification, capacity-building, procurement, etc.
Implementation costs Costs directly associated with the actions leading to reduced deforestation or forest degradation, and hence to reduced emissions. Fire management programs, patrolling, administrative costs, promoting alternative sustainable livelihoods, sustainable forestry management, community development, etc.
Monitoring costs Costs necessary for the implementers of a REDD+ project to determine if a certain amount of emissions reduction has been achieved; as well as other cobenefits. All activities involved in monitoring carbon stocks, deforestation and forest degradation, and environmental and social cobenefits.