Fig. 1. Flow chart for compilation of the map of forest management approaches. Schematic representation of how the different (GIS-) data sets were combined using the parameter values of Tables 1 and 2 in Equation 1. Data sets are (a) tree species distribution map, (b) biogeographic regions, (c) slope, (d) proximity to towns larger than 25,000 inhabitants, (e) proximity to cities larger than 750,000 inhabitants, (f) forest cover, (g) stand area derived from the tree species map of Europe, and (h) Natura2000 regions. Arrow (i) combines the biogeographic and species information with the regional species suitability to form pFMA in Equation 1 (k). Arrow (j) combines the data sets (c–h) on factors (gi) with the weighting factors (α) from Table 2 in Equation 1. Equation 1 (k) combines the different data sets into a suitability measure for each forest management approach in each stand. Arrow (l) combines these suitabilities into a map of the most suitable forest management approach per square kilometer (m).