Table 3. Name and relative likelihood (weight) of the five most frequent hazards in the eight regional case studies

The relative likelihood of hazards was estimated as the percentage of trees affected by each of the five hazards at the stand level, according to the patterns of occurrence observed during the last 30–50 years. Then percentages were transformed in relative proportions (sum = 100%)

Case study Hazard #1 Hazard #2 Hazard #3 Hazard #4 Hazard #5
PT-Euc leaf rust leaf beetle gall insect fire stem canker
M. spp. G. scutellatus C. spatulata B. dothidea
43% 26% 26% 4% 1%
FR-Mar defoliator stem borer wind fire root rot
T. pityocampa D. sylvestrella H. annosum
47% 47% 3% 2% 1%
UK-Sit game wind weevil aphid fire
C. elaphus H. abietis E. abietinum
81% 9% 5% 4% 1%
UK-Sco game wind weevil foliar disease fire
C. elaphus H. abietis D. septosporum
81% 9% 5% 4% 1%
PL-Sco game root rot weevil sawfly wind
C. elaphus H. annosum H. abietis A. nemoralis
47% 19% 15% 12% 7%
SU-Sco root rot weevil game bark beetle wind
H. annosum H. abietis I. typographus
38% 28% 19% 8% 8%
GE-Nor root rot wind bark beetle snow game
H. annosum I. typographus C.s elaphus
58% 20% 20% 1% 1%
AU-Nor bark beetle wind snow game sawfly
I. typographus C. elaphus P. abietina
25% 25% 20% 20% 10%
Most frequent biotic hazards : Mycosphaerella spp, Gonipterus scutellatus, Ctenarytaina spatulata, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Thaumetopoea pityocampa, Dioryctria sylvestrella, Cervus elaphus, Heterobasidion annosum, Hylobius abietis, Elatobium abietinum, Dothistroma septosporum, Acantholyda nemoralis, Ips typographus, Pristiphora abietina.