Table 3. Effects of the forest management alternatives (FMAs) on multiple forest ecosystem services.

Productive functions FMA 1,
nature reserve
FMA 2,
low intervention
FMA 3,
mixed approach
FMA 4,
timber
FMA 5,
biomass
Mean annual increment
(merchantable m3 ha−1 yr−1)
0 8 10 14 14
Land expectation value (LEV)
  1%   (€ ha−1) 0 10630 16492 19232 21771
  2%   (€ ha−1) 0 2641 4955 4237 5427
  3%   (€ ha−1) 0 601 1734 64 783
  4%   (€ ha−1) 0 −73 512 −1523 −1050
  5%   (€ ha−1) 0 −303 2 −2180 −1856
Carbon
  C stock living   (tons C ha−1) 177 112 85 97 97
  C stock dead   (tons C ha−1) 20 6 5 6 1
  C harvested   (tons C ha−1 yr−1) 0 2,1 2,3 2,7 3.5
  C assimilated   (tons C ha−1 yr−1)   (based on NGtotal) 4.5 3.9 3.7 4.2 4.2
Nutrients / acidification
  N deposition − harvesting
  (kg ha−1 yr−1)
17 10 14 18 6
  P deposition − harvesting
  (kg ha−1 yr−1)
0.2 -0.4 -0.4 -0.5 −1.8
  K deposition − harvesting
  (kg ha−1 yr−1)
2.0 −2.4 −1.8 −1.1 −6.4
  Ca deposition − harvesting
  (kg ha−1 yr−1)
2.7 −5.0 −4.3 −3.6 −10
  Mg deposition − harvesting
  (kg ha−1 yr−1)
0.7 -0.4 0.2 0 -0.9
  Acidification due to harvesting
  (kmol H+ eqv ha−1 yr−1)
0 0.6 0.6 0.6 1.1
  Potential acidification due to   nitrate leaching
  (kmol H+ eqv ha−1 yr−1)
1.2 0.7 1.0 1.3 0.4
Water
  Runoff  (mm yr−1) 579 622 622 556 557
  Nitrate in runoff  (mg NO3−-N l−1) 2.9 1.6 2.3 3.3 1.2
Biodiversity
  Woody debris          
    Fine   (m3 ha−1) 34 25 36 46 11
    Coarse   (m3 ha−1) 129 26 7 0 0
  Trees, average dbh          
    >40 cm   (N ha−1) 44 36 41 51 51
    >60 cm   (N ha−1) 21 10 5 1 1
    >70 cm   (N ha−1) 15 4 1 0 0
    >80 cm   (N ha−1) 11 2 0 0 0
    >100 cm  (N ha−1) 6 1 0 0 0
 Trees, number of species
  (N ha−1)
7 7 2 1 1
Net growth (NGtotal) is defined here as net total biomass growth (tC ha−1 yr−1) without continuous losses of foliage, branch, or root biomass as trees grow.
  Mean annual precipitation was 1050 mm yr−1. Evapotranspiration is the difference between precipitation and runoff.