Fig. 5. Multiple use of the forest management approaches (FMA) in timber production and nontimber services. Production is expressed as land expectation value (LEV) at an interest rate of 1% (at left) and 3% (at right) in monetary terms, woody debris measured in physical terms is provided as a surrogate for biodiversity. Further, the amount of the coarse woody debris is provided in brackets beside the labeling of the points. As a crude estimate, specialized management at the landscape level is superior at an interest rate of 1% (FMA 4 contains only fine woody debris). In contrast, at a 3% interest rate, multiple-use approaches are beyond the dotted regulatory line between specialized approaches.

Fig. 5