Table 3. Some existing definitions of community resilience, without emphasizing recovery.

Definition of resilience Reference
The resilience of the coast is its self-organizing capacity to preserve actual and potential functions under changing hydraulic and morphological conditions. Klein et al. (1998:263)
Resiliency is the ability to withstand an extreme natural event without suffering devastating losses, damage, diminished productivity, or quality of life, and without a large amount of assistance from outside the community. Mileti (1999:32-33)
Resilience is the ability of an actor to cope with or adapt to hazard stress. It is a product of the degree of planned preparation undertaken in the light of potential hazard, and of spontaneous or premeditated adjustments made in response to felt hazard, including relief and rescue. Pelling (2003:48)
Resilience is the capacity of linked social–ecological systems to absorb recurrent disturbances such as hurricanes or floods so as to retain essential structures, processes, and feedbacks. Adger et al. (2005:1036)
Disaster resilience could be viewed as the intrinsic capacity of a system, community, or society that is predisposed to a shock or stress to adapt and survive by changing its nonessential attributes and rebuilding itself. Manyena (2006:446)
Resilience is the capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change so as to still retain essentially the same function, structure, identity, and feedbacks. Berkes (2007:284)
A resilient system is able to absorb hazard impacts without changing its fundamental functions; at the same time, it is able to renew, reorganize, and adapt when hazard impacts are significant. López-Marrero and Tschakert (2011:230)