Table 1. Differences between engineering resilience and ecological resilience.

Engineering resilience Ecological resilience
Theoretic construct Resilience = resistance + recovery Resilience = tolerance + reorganization
Assumption One equilibrium (one regime)
Predictability
Multiple equilibria (multiple regimes)
Unpredictability and uncertainty
Concerns Deviation from the ideal level of system functionality or stable state Regime shift
Focus Stability/consistency—returning quickly to the equilibrium Persistence—remaining within the current regime
Measurement The speed of recovery to the previous stable state The magnitude of disturbance the system can undergo before shifting to a different regime
Disturbance role Disturbances as threats Disturbances as learning opportunities