Fig. 4. A comparison between the resistant and resilient city. The resistant city is dependent on flood-control infrastructure, functioning only in the dry conditions and having little tolerance of socioeconomic state changes, i.e., narrow tolerable range. This leads to a small basin of attraction of the desirable regime, whose size is indicated by the shaded area; hence low urban resilience to floods. On the contrary, the resilient city tolerates flooding and much greater fluctuation in socioeconomic conditions, thus having a larger basin and consequentially greater urban resilience to floods.

Fig. 4