Table 2. Search terms utilized for each ecosystem service. Services are categorized as to whether they provide an input to farming, an output from farming, mitigation of an environmental externality, or adaptation to global change.


Performance indicator or ecosystem service Category of ecosystem service Web of Science: topic-specific search terms
Biodiversity Input and output (“biodiversity” OR “biological diversity” OR “species richness” OR “species abundance”)
 
Soil quality Input, mitigation (“soil structure” OR “soil erosion” OR “soil organic matter” OR “organic matter content” OR “carbon sequestration” OR “soil carbon” OR “soil quality” OR “soil biological diversity” OR “soil biological activity” OR “water-holding capacity” OR “porosity” OR “permeability” OR “percolation” OR “aggregation” OR “aggregate stability” OR “soil erosion”)
 
Nutrient management Input, mitigation (“nutrient management” OR “nitrogen management” OR “phosphorus management” OR “nutrient leaching” OR “nitrogen leaching” OR “nitrate leaching” OR “phosphorus leaching”)
 
Water-holding capacity Input (“water-use efficiency” OR “water-holding capacity” OR “porosity” OR “permeability” OR “percolation”)
 
Control of weeds Input (“pest control” OR “weed control” OR “weed suppression” OR "weed management” OR “weed pressure” OR “weed density”)
 
Control of plant pathogens Input (“pathogens” OR “plant pathogens” OR “pest control” OR “pathogen control” OR “pathogen suppression” OR “pathogen management” OR “disease management” OR “soil borne pathogens”)
 
Control of arthropod pests Input (“pest control” OR “pest management” OR “arthropod pest management” OR "pest regulation” OR “biocontrol” OR “biological control” OR “conservation biological control” OR “natural enemies” OR “beneficial arthropods”
 
Pollination services Input (“pollination” OR “ pollination services” OR “crop pollination")
 
Carbon sequestration Mitigation (“carbon sequestration” OR “soil carbon” OR “carbon capture” OR “green house gas emissions”)
 
Energy-use efficiency and global warming potential Mitigation (“energy use” OR “energy consumption” OR “energy-use efficiency” OR “energy” OR “green house gasses” OR “global warming potential”)
 
Resiliency to environmental disturbances: drought Adaptation (“resiliency” OR “stability” OR “adaptation” OR “environmental disturbances” OR “extreme weather” OR “drought”)
 
Resiliency to environmental disturbances: hurricane and heavy rainfall Adaptation (“resiliency” OR “stability” OR “adaptation” OR “environmental disturbances” OR “extreme weather” OR “hurricane”)
 
Crop productivity/yield Output (“productivity” OR "yield”)
 
Web of Science: common search terms
AND (“ecoagriculture” OR “sustainable agriculture” OR “agroecology” OR "organic farming” OR “organic agriculture” OR “poly-culture” OR “diversified farming system” OR “traditional farming systems” OR “intercropping” OR “crop diversity” OR “multicropping” OR “agrobiodiversity” OR “hedgerow” OR “insectary strip” OR “cover cropping” OR “crop rotation” OR “no-till agriculture” OR “agroforestry” OR “alley cropping” OR “livestock integration” OR “compost” OR “green manure”)
 
Biodiversity plays a fundamental role as an input to all other ecosystem services, and is also a desirable cultural service that can be produced by agroecosystems (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005).