Table 1. Relationship between diversified farming system practices and the provisioning of ecosystem services.

Ecosystem service Compost or manure Intercrop Agroforestry Insectary strip No till or low till Rotation Cover crop or green manure Fallow Border planting Riparian buffers Woodlots, meadows, forests
Biodiversity (above and below ground) x x x x x x x x x x x
Soil quality x x x   x x x x   x x
Nutrient management x         x x   x x x
Water-holding capacity x   x   x   x x      
Weed control   x x     x x        
Disease control x x x     x x        
Pest control   x x x   x x x x x x
Pollination   x x x   x x x x x x
Carbon sequestration x   x   x   x x x x x
Energy-use efficiency x x x x   x x   x    
Resilience to drought x   x   x   x x   x  
Resilience to hurricanes/heavy rains x x x   x x x x x x x
Productivity/yield x x x x x x x x      
Scale Within-field Field Perimeter Landscape