Table 5. Selected marine oil spills and development of mandatory regulations relevant to oil tankers, 1967-2005.

Year Ship name Location Spill size (tons) Economic cost Resulting regulation
1967 Torrey Canyon Scilly Isles, UK 119,000 n/a 1969 CLC Convention
1971 FUND Convention
1978 Amoco Cadiz Off the coast of France 223,000 US$ 282 million 1981 and 1983 SOLAS Amendments
1982 Paris MoU on Port State Control
1989 Exxon Valdez Prince William Sound, USA 37,000 US$ 9.5 billion 1990 Oil Pollution Act in the US
1992 MARPOL Amendment
1999 Erika Off the coast of France 20,000 US$ 180 million 2001 MARPOL Amendment
2002 Prestige Off the coast of Spain 63,000 778 million Euro 2003 EU Regulation 1726/2003
2003 MARPOL Amendment
2005 EU Third Maritime Safety Package
Abbreviations: CLC = International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage; FUND = International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage; MARPOL = International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships (MARPOL is abbreviation for Marine Pollution); MoU = Memorandum of Understanding; SOLAS = International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS is abbreviation for Safety of Life at Sea); Sources: Adapted from Bijwaard and Knapp (2009) and Knapp and Franses (2009).