Table 2. Tipping points for regime shifts in the respective subsystems and the impact of the respective trajectories on selected ecosystem services.

Subsystem Offshore wind farm scenario tipping points Impacts on ecosystem service provision
Global climate regulation Provision of food Provision of wind energy Aesthetics of seascape§ Seascape character, sense of place, inspiration§ Cultural identity§
Ecosystem Artificial reef emergence + + + +
Resilient ecosystem behavior + + +
Ecosystem degradation + - + - - -
Seascape OWF construction + (+) + +/- +/- +/-
Socioeconomic system Energy region acceptance + + + + +
Loss of traditional identity and slow degradation + + - - -
= regulating ecosystem services, = provisioning services, § = cultural services, + = positive impact,
- = negative impact, blank field = no impact, OWF = offshore wind farm