Table 1. Indicators used for the description of potential offshore wind farming (OWF)-related ecosystem development and impacts on cultural ecosystem services (adapted from Busch et al. 2010).

Potential OWF impacts
Ecosystem functions
Exergy capture The insertion of hard structures and substrates into the sea might cause changes in primary production.
Entropy production OWF can cause changes in internal energy use (the gross primary production/net primary production ratio would change); thus, entropy production would change.
Nutrient cycling Ecosystem alterations around the turbine piles and scour protection will alter nutrient turnover rates around the piles. Additional effects are expected because of wake effects and the settlement of benthic organisms.
Storage capacity Ecosystem alterations around the turbine piles and scour protection will change the amount of matter, e.g., organic carbon, stored in the system.
Abiotic heterogeneity The insertion of hard structures and substrates in the form of wind turbine piles and scour protection provides new and more heterogeneous habitats for the settlement of, e.g., benthic organisms. Additionally, water currents and sediment dynamics are locally influenced.
Biotic diversity Ecosystem alterations around the turbine piles and scour protection will change underwater species diversity. Further impacts on above-water species diversity (migrating and resting birds) and impacts on marine mammals are expected. As commercial fishery is not allowed within OWFs because of shipping safety reasons, species diversity will change.
Nutrient loss Ecosystem alterations around the turbine piles and scour protection will change nutrient cycling, altering nutrient losses in the surroundings of the OWFs.
Organization Ecosystem alterations around the turbine piles and scour protection will change ecosystem organization with regard to matter, information, and energy fluxes.
   
Cultural ecosystem service indicators
Visual aesthetics If visible, OWFs would add a new element to the seascape, affecting the visual qualities of the sea (wide open horizon)
Seascape character OWF shifts the character of the seascape from a largely natural to a more industrial landscape.
Sense of place OWF is incompatible with the desire to keep the sea free of industrial structures and challenges the traditional view of the seascape/area. Aspects of control and decision making processes could be important. Indirect impacts, e.g., helicopter flights, could detract from what are now considered essential elements of “Heimat,” e.g., peace and quiet, remoteness.
Cultural heritage In the long term, OWFs could become an accepted element of the cultural landscape. Short-term impacts could include the destruction of archaeologically important sites (bad siting of OWFs).
Habitat and species value OWF could fundamentally change natural habitats and impact on bird and mammal species. OWF is perceived as a potential threat to intrinsic natural values.
Regional image OWF can make a positive contribution to the region’s image in helping it to modernize. OWF can also be negative if it is seen to detract from essential traditional qualities. The nature of the impact depends on the choices the region makes for its future.
Inspiration In adding a new element to the environment, OWF can act as a source of inspiration or detract from previous sources of inspiration. The effect is likely to be stronger the more visible OWFs would be.
Informal education OWF represents a new topic that can be added to existing informal education issues.
Knowledge systems In the mid- to long-term, OWF could bring new local and scientific knowledge to the region, i.e., technology transfer, accumulation of more and different types of knowledge.
Recreation Impacts could include new recreational activities such as trips to wind farms. OWF may impact on personal feelings of well-being. If visible, leisure may be affected, e.g., enjoying the open horizon.