Table 1. Transformation of event structure metaphors into conceptual blends between neoclassical economics and adaptive cycle theory.

Component primary metaphor in event structure metaphor
 
Evidence of primary metaphor in Neoclassical economics event structure metaphor
(“I need to continuously maximize my utility in competition with others. Utility is money and power.”)
 
Evidence of primary metaphor in Adaptive cycle event structure metaphor
(“We need to sustain adaptive capacity of social-ecological system. Adaptive capacity is a cycle between slow growth and rapid dissipation.”)
 
Conceptual blend between Neoclassical economics and Adaptive cycle theory
(“I need to sustain adaptive capacity of social-ecological system in cooperation with others.”)
 
System is physical structure
 
•Utility is an uphill slope
•Slope has no limits
•Lonely riders compete with each other going uphill
 
•Social-ecological system is a roller coaster track
•Roller coaster track has limits defined by the cycle shape
 
•Slope becomes a cycle by linking downhill with uphill
•When join downhill with uphill, lonely riders become roller coaster riders riding the track together
•Since roller coaster riders are linked on single track, they cannot compete as individuals and must cooperate
 
States are locations (bounded regions in space)
 
•Lonely rider with money and power remains on slope
 
•Dynamics of adaptive social-ecological system follow the shape of roller coaster track
 
•Adaptive roller coaster riders remain together on roller coaster track
•Sometimes adaptive roller coaster riders have money and power
 
Changes are movements (into or out of bounded regions)
 
•More/less money and power is moving uphill/downhill
•Uphill movement continues forever, downhill movement is temporary
•The slope does not erode from traveling on it
 
•Dissipation of potential is growth of resilience and connectedness in r turn of track
•Growth of potential and connectedness is dissipation of resilience in K turn of track
•Dissipation of potential and connectedness is growth of resilience in Ω turn of track
•Growth of potential and resilience is dissipation of connectedness in α turn of track
•More/less adaptive capacity is roller coaster track in good/poor shape
 
•When wealth increases, resilience diminishes (in conservation) or connections diminish (in reorganization)
•When wealth diminishes, resilience increases (in release) or both resilience and connections increase (in exploitation)
•Adaptive roller coaster riders prevent track from deteriorating
 
Causes are forces
 
•Lonely rider’s need to maximize money and power is the force that makes him move uphill
 
•The need for adaptive capacity is the force that maintains movement of social-ecological system along roller coaster track
 
•Roller coaster riders coordinate money and power to maintain movement along roller coaster track
 
Actions are self-propelled movements
 
•Action is lonely rider moving uphill or preventing downhill movement
 
•Action is quicker or slower motion of social-ecological system along roller coaster track
 
•Action is roller coaster riders moving at variable speed on roller coaster tracks
 
Purposes are destinations
 
•Maintaining money and power is staying inside the vehicle
•Lonely rider maximizes money and power by staying ahead of others in the uphill climb
•Maximizing money and power requires maintaining the vehicle
 
•Maintaining adaptive capacity is building and repairing roller coaster track
 
•Adaptive roller coaster riders maintain roller coaster and track
•Adaptive riders all stay inside vehicle on roller coaster tracks
•Adaptive riders experiment with safe limits of roller coaster speed
•Adaptive riders change roller coasters at bottom station
 
Means are paths (to destinations)
 
•To make money and gain power, the lonely rider moves on uphill path
 
•Adaptive capacity is a cycle of growth and dissipation
•Growth requires dissipative turn on roller coaster track
•Dissipation requires turn toward growth on roller coaster track
 
•To achieve growth, riders move up and down on roller coaster tracks
•To achieve growth in one dimension, riders must accept reductions in other dimensions
 
Expected progress is travel schedule (schedule is reaching prearranged destination at prearranged time)
 
•Lonely rider advances his career by achieving next post on path up as quickly as possible
 
•Advancing adaptive capacity is having optimal speed going up and down
 
•Roller coaster riders advance their personal careers by collaborating to maintain optimal speed going up and down
 
Difficulties are impediments to motion
 
•Recession means uncontrolled slide downhill
•Losing competition is being left behind in the climb
•Not making ends meet is moving more downhill than uphill
•Regulation is rough terrain
•Regulation is heavy burden
 
•Losing adaptive capacity is letting roller coaster track deteriorate
•Regulation prevents experimentation with safe roller coaster track design
 
•Recession means gaining downhill speed to be able to go uphill (neoclassical economic difficulties are adaptive cycle means)
•Losing competition is waiting for right moment to climb up (difficulties = means)
•Losing competition is having a rough ride
•Losing adaptive capacity is a stalled roller coaster
•Regulation prevents experimentation with safe roller coaster track design and riding speed
 
External events are large moving objects.
 
•Recession is getting hit by landslide
 
•Breakdown of social-ecological system is collapsing roller coaster
 
•Catastrophe is collapsing roller coaster
 
Long-term purposeful activities are journeys
 
•The lonely rider’s life is speeding uphill ahead of others
 
•Social-ecological life is a roller coaster track that offers a pleasant ride
 
•Personal life is a pleasant roller coaster ride with others