Table 1. Characteristics of biological resource monitoring systems in Brazilian Amazonia and Namibian Caprivi.

Resource monitoring system
Characteristic Hunting in Indigenous Lands (HIL) Biodiversity and Natural Resources Monitoring Use Program of Amazonas Protected Areas (ProBUC) Fauna Monitoring System of the Mamirauá Institute (SMUF) Event Book System (EBS)
Location Brazilian Amazonia Brazilian Amazonia Brazilian Amazonia Namibia Caprivi
Region Acre state Amazonas state Amazonas state Namibia
Protected Area/IUCN category Indigenous Lands (IL), mainly Kaxinawá and Katukina State Protected Areas, mainly Sustainable Development Reserve (SDR) Uacari Sustainable Development Reserve (SDR) Mamirauá and Amanã Conservancies
Management regime Federal land; indigenous communities have exclusive subsistence use rights State land; communities have concession for subsistence use; co-managed with government environmental agency and organized civil society State land; communities have concession for subsistence use; co-managed with government environmental agency and Mamirauá Sustainable Development Institute Federal land; communities have use rights
Approximate extent of monitoring system (number of protected areas) 6243 km² (8 IL) 6330 km² (1 SDR) 34,624 km² (2 SDR) 149,829 km² (71 Conservancies)
Average community population (number of communities) 65 (45) 40 (6) 74 (10) 3784 (59)
Biological resources monitored Game species and harvest Game species and harvest, plant species extractive production Game species and harvest Game species and harvest, craft resources and sales, rainfall
Importance of monitored resource to communities Main meat source Game commonly used; manioc flour and fish are the main income Main meat source Economic benefits from crafts plant products and wildlife; food supplemented by wildlife
Stakeholders participating Indigenous communities, Comissão Pró-Índio do Acre (local nongovernmental organization), The Nature Conservancy, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, independent researcher Ribeirinho communities, local associations, municipal governments, Centro Estadual de Unidades de Conservação (state environmental agency), University of Amazonas, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Amazônicas (research institute), Federal government (ARPA Program), Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Ribeirinho communities, Mamirauá Sustainable Development Institute (research institute), Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Namibian Association of CBNRM Support Organizations, Ministry of Environment and Tourism, World Wildlife Fund, University of Namibia
Institution requesting monitoring system The Nature Conservancy, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Amazonas state government, Federal government through the ARPA program Mamirauá Sustainable Development Institute World Wildlife Fund, Integrated Rural Development and Nature Conservancy, Ministry of Environment and Tourism
Main objective of monitoring system Education and management Management information and livelihood improvement Management information and scientific research Management of stochastic events