Table 2. Changes in three social-ecological system functions in Ñinpelima.

Function Firewood Livestock Gum

“Quantitative” change
 

+
 

+
 

-
 
Indicators of quantitative change Increase in the number of woodcutter Increase in the number of livestock herder Decrease in the quantity of gum harvested per woman

 
Increase in the number of cubic meters sold
 

 
Decrease in the number of livestock sold
 
Indicators of qualitative change Harvesting of live trees Decrease in fodder
Decrease in diameter of Combretum nigricans and other harvested species Decrease in the number of large diameter stems of Combretum nigricans that produce gum