Fig. 1. From Local Fishermen to Global Fishing Vessels

a) Lone fisherman with rod fishing among oyster farms in Pearl River Estuary near Macau, China. Most of South China Sea has been depleted of small fish by large-scale bottom trawling (Cheung and Pitcher 2008). Photo credit: Mimi E. Lam (2008). b) A traditional artisanal seine net fishery has existed for generations on Lake Malawi, Africa, targeting an herbivorous tilapia, chambo (Oreochromis spp.), which is unique to the lake and forms the national dish of Malawi. The fish are sold daily at many beaches around the lake. Beginning in the 1970s, foreign development aid projects supplied nylon nets and outboard engines for the boats, greatly increasing fishing power, which ultimately contributed to the collapse of the Malawian chambo fishery (Turner 1995). Photo credit: Tony J. Pitcher (1987). c) Fishermen cleaning their nets on "slereks," traditional wooden purse seiners, in the Bali Strait sardine fishery in the village of Pengambengan, Indonesia. Female gleaners in the water run fishmeal businesses, just one of many unofficial livelihoods in the community supported by this local unreported fishery (Buchary et al. 2011). Photo credit: Tony J. Pitcher (2003). d) Heavily-subsidized, million-Euro, deep-sea bottom trawlers in the small village of Kinsale Harbor, West Cork, Ireland. Owner-operators are organized in a fishermen's cooperative with considerable local political power. Such vessels have been implicated in circumventing European Union (EU) regulations (Pramod and Pitcher 2006). Photo credit: Tony J. Pitcher (2006). e) Salmon drum purse seiner with crew operating in Johnstone Strait, British Columbia. Most of the commercial fleet, including this vessel, is corporately owned by Canfisco, the largest salmon canner in Canada. Federal regulations have favored this sector over other, mostly owner-operated sectors (Power-Antweiler and Pitcher 2008). Photo credit: Neil Winkelmann (2008). f) Atlantic Dawn, an Irish-owned, highly-subsidized, factory freezer trawler, was banned by the EU, but continued to operate in West Africa and elsewhere with laxer regulations (Heinberg 2003). Now renamed the Annelies Ilena, registered in the Netherlands, and repainted, the world's largest fishing vessel has been seen fishing off the coast of British Columbia, Canada. Photo credit: Bjørn Ottosen (Port of Bergen, Norway, 2000).

Fig. 1