Table 2. Summary of human dimensions variables and indicators for coral reefs and associated tropical marine ecosystems in key literature and reports. Indicators and variables in supporting references include quantitative and qualitative metrics for gathering empirical data for proximate (1–10) and underlying (A–J) human dimensions data.

Proximate level Supporting references† Underlying level Supporting references†
Ecosystem services and benefits Human well-being
1. Food and resource security see Table 1 A. Access to basic materials 1, 2
2. Ocean recreation, tourism, and coastal livelihoods see Table 1 B. Freedom and choice 1, 2
3. Coastal protection see Table 1 C. Human health 1, 2, 10, 11
4. Socio-cultural services see Table 1 D. Social relations and social capital 1, 2
5. Biogeochemical cycling see Table 1 E. Security 1, 2
Human impacts and modifying actions Social system structural traits
6. Exploitation 6–8, 10 F. Demography 3–5, 7, 9–10
7. Land-based pollution 6, 7, 10 G. Economies and modes of production 4, 5, 8–12
8. Invasive species 6, 7 H. Technologies 4, 5
9. Recreational impacts 6, 7, 9, 10 I. Perceptions, values, ethics, or mores 4, 5, 9, 11
10. Climate change 6, 7, 10 J. Institutions and governance systems 4, 5, 10, 11, 13, 14
† (1) Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and World Resources Institute (2005); (2) World Resources Institute (2007); (3) Crossett et al. (2008); (4) Bunce et al. (2000); (5) Wongbusarakum and Pomeroy (2008); (6) Burke et al. (2011); (7) Burke et al. (2001); (8) Garcia and Staples (2000); (9) Loper et al. (2008); (10) McField and Kramer (2007); (11) Pomeroy et al. (2004); (12) Allison and Ellis (2001); (13) Ostrom (1990); (14) Ostrom (2005).