Table 1. Human-centered typology of ecosystem goods and services from coral reefs and associated tropical marine ecosystems.

Ecosystem service or benefit Description Supporting references†
Food and resource security
Physical, social, and economic access to food sources and other resources from tropical marine ecosystems
Ocean recreation, tourism, and coastal livelihoods
Employment and income from fisheries, tourism, and recreational industry-based livelihoods; recreational use
Coastal protection
Flooding protection and wave attenuation from storms, extreme tides, tsunamis, and other disturbances
Socio-cultural services
Aesthetic, cultural, religious, and spiritual values, services, practices, and traditions
Biogeochemical cycling
Transformation, detoxification, and sequestration of wastes; cycling of key life-sustaining nutrients, elements, and compounds
†(1) Moberg and Folke (1999); (2) Beaumont et al. (2007); (3) Holmlund and Hammer (1999); (4) Peterson and Lubchenco (1997).