Table 1. Resilience concepts from the more narrow interpretation to the broader social–ecological perspective.


Resilience concepts Characteristics Focus on Content
Engineering resilience
 
Return time, efficiency
 
Recovery, constancy
 
Vicinity of a stable equilibrium
 
Ecological/ecosystem resilience and
social resilience
 
Buffer capacity, withstand shock,
maintain function
 
Persistence, robustness
 
Multiple equilibria, stability landscapes
 
Social-ecological resilience
 
Interplay of disturbance and reorganization, sustaining and
developing
 
Adaptive capacity
transformability, learning,
innovation
 
Integrated system feedback,
cross-scale dynamic interactions
 
Adapted from Folke (2006); Badjeck (2010, personal communication)