Table 3. Definitions for level of local community participation in protected area (PA) management

Subcategory Explanation
Included
 
Local communities have effective participation in PA management and decision making, managing the reserve’s future together with other stakeholders.
 
Partially Included
 
PA managers listen to locals’ complaints, and there is also an attempt to develop alternative economic incentives within the community. However, this lacks community participation.
 
Excluded
 
Neither the problems of local communities, nor their needs, are being addressed or assessed by PA managers.