Table 4. Collaborative projects that bridge LTK and science: examples from the literature.


Examples Focus Methods
Baines 1992 Various subjects, focusing on fish and fishing Researchers resident in community, reciprocal training
Carmack and Macdonald 2008 Water and ice-related phenomena (Arctic Canada) Dialogue with elder
Fernandez-Giminez et al. 2006 Beluga whales (Alaska) Comanagement committee
Fienup-Riordan 1999 Geese (Alaska) Interviews
Gearheard et al. 2006 Sea ice (Alaska/Canada) Knowledge exchange with field trips
Hall et al. 2009 Oyster fishery (New Zealand) Participatory monitoring
Krupnik 2002 Ice and weather (Alaska) Workshop and locally led documentation project
Moller et al. 2009b Seabird harvest (New Zealand) Long-term research partnership
Norton 2002 Sea ice (Alaska) Symposium
Obura et al. 2002 Local fish monitoring (Tanzania) Community engagement in research
Tremblay et al. 2008 Local climate (Arctic Canada) Community-based monitoring