Table 3. How the substantive focus of marine LTK studies has broadened: examples from the literature.

Category Study focus Examples
Ecology Marine habitats, spawning and nursery areas Knutsen et al. 2010, Thornton et al. 2010
Historical ecology of coral reef guilds Shackeroff et al. 2011
Mangroves and lagoons Johannes 1978, Johannes 1981, Kovacs 2000, Hernandez Cornejo et al. 2005, Aswani and Lauer 2006, Walters et al. 2008
Seagrass environments Lauer and Aswani 2010, Turner and Clifton 2006, Wyllie-Echeverria et al. 2002
Marine/coastal habitats and tsunami impacts Venkatachalam et al. 2010
Physical environment and cultural adaptation Tidal cycles and wind patterns Tobisson et al. 1998, Nirmale et al. 2004a
Lunar cycles Cordell 1974, Nirmale et al. 2004a
Effect of water color on catch Nirmale et al. 2004a
Weather and climate Lefale 2010
Indicators of cyclone intensity Nirmale et al. 2004b, 2007
Seabed morphology Tobisson et al. 1998
Finding fishing spots based on physical environment Forman 1967, Schafer and Reis 2008
Response to potentially tsunami-forming earthquakes McAdoo et al. 2009
Interpreting satellite images and aerial photos using LTK Aswani and Lauer 2006
Tropical coastal habitat connectivity Garcia-Quijano 2007
Currents and island wakes Johannes 1981
Sea ice (freeze/thaw processes, influence of winds and currents) Nelson 1969, Dowsley and Wenzel 2008, Laidler and Elee 2008, Laidler and Ikummaq 2008, Aporta and Macdonald 2011, Inuksuk 2011
Adaptation to sea ice environment Riewe 1991, George et al. 2004
Incorporation of sea ice LTK and satellite imagery Laidler et al. 2011
Glaciers Cruikshank 2001, 2005
Navigation (general) Paine 1957, Gladwin 1970, Finney 1976, and Feinberg 1988
Navigation (landmarks) Forman 1967, 1970, Igarashi 1984, Ammarell 1995
Navigation (stars, swells) Ammarell 1995, Feinberg 1995
Navigation in the Arctic Aporta 2002, 2004, 2009
Using GPS to map trails Aporta 2003
Collaborative mapping Gearheard et al. 2011
Weather/ocean/climate conditions Alvarez and Vodden 2009
Assessing environmental change Mangrove forests (e.g., disturbance, extent) Kovacs 2000, Hernandez Cornejo et al. 2005
Geographic distribution, seasonality and severity of algal blooms Schlacher et al. 2010
Long-term ecological change in seagrass meadows and causal factors Lauer and Aswani 2010
Nearshore macrobenthos affected by local sewage disposal Jewett et al. 2009
Climate variability and Arctic Knopp 2010, Barber et al. 2010
Changes in sea ice Gearheard et al. 2006
Relationship between sea ice and climate change Laidler 2006
Climate–walrus–human relationships Krupnik and Carleton Ray 2007, Metcalf and Robards 2008
Language and marine cognition Names for fish Akimichi 1978, Akimichi 1986, Ankei 1989, Ambali et al. 2001, Anderson 2007
Marine invertebrates Sloan and Barthier 2009
Names for hydrological features Burenhult 2008
Landscape and seascape terms Cablitz 2008, Levinson 2008, O’Conner and Kroefges 2008, Senft 2008, Thornton 2011
Coastal proverbs Kurien 1998
Terms for sea ice conditions Norton 2002, Laidler and Elee 2008, Laidler and Ikummaq 2008, Heyes 2011, Krupnik 2011
Ancestral sayings and a coastal wetland plant Wehi 2009
Terms for tidal current patterns Johannes et al. 1981
Resource management Management practices in small-scale subsistence or commercial fisheries (artisanal fisheries) Morrill 1967, Johannes 1978, Johannes 1981, Klee 1980, Swezey and Heizer 1984, Amos 1993, Johannes and Yeeting 2000, Blount 2005, Hickey 2007, Thornton 2008, Mangahas 2010, Nguyen and Ruddle 2010, Satria and Adhuri 2010, Coulthard 2011
Basic fisheries assessments Arce-Ibarra and Charles 2008
Fish harvesting techniques and technologies (artisanal) Akimichi 1986, Hviding 1996, Anuchiracheeva et al. 2003, Linkous Brown 2006, Nirmale et al. 2004a, Nirmale et al. 2004b, Langdon 2006, Nirmale 2007, Nsiku 2007, McClanahan and Cinner 2008, Manna et al. 2009, Rathakrishnan et al. 2009
Assessing bait to catch ratios (commercial) Harnish and Willison 2009
Bycatch assemblages Hill et al. 2010
Changing uses of bycatch Lobo et al. 2010
Comparative study of fishing tuna Moreno et al. 2007a
Spatial distribution of scallops (commercial) Wroblewski et al. 2009
Spatial distribution of lobster Acheson 1988
Harvesting methods for seaweeds Turner and Clifton 2006
Assessing effectiveness of conservation measures McClanahan et al. 1997
Village-managed fish conservation zones Baird and Flaherty 2005