Table 2. Management-focused marine LTK studies: examples from the literature.

Broad aim LTK–management focus Examples
Increase knowledge base to improve management Species or habitat Silvano et al. 2006, Hill et al. 2010, Lemelin et al. 2010, Rasalato et al. 2010
Stock numbers Neis 1992, Foale 1998, Saenz-Arroyo 2005a, Jones 2007
Sightings Rajamani and Marsh 2010
Seasonal patterns Manajarréz-Martínez et al. 2010
Stock structure Gosse et al. 2003, Nielsen 2009
Hunting incidence/incidental catch Rajamani and Marsh 2010
Environmental change Lauer and Aswani 2010, Knopp 2010
“Shifting baselines” Saenz-Arroyo et al. 2005b, Eddy et al. 2010, Thornton et al. 2010, Venkatachalam et al. 2010
Identify commonalities between LTK and commercial fishers knowledge Batista and Lima 2010
Assess, improve, and or/develop management techniques Examine seabird egg harvesting strategies in relation to population ecology Hunn et al. 2003
Bring to light potentially useful traditional practices Berkes 1977, Baines and Hviding 1993, McClanahan et al. 1997, Johannes 1998, Jones and Williams-Davidson 2000, Johannes 2002, Mathooko 2005, Linkous Brown 2006, Menzies and Butler 2007, Ashaletha and Immanuel 2008, Heaslip 2008, Thornton 2008, Rathakrishnan et al. 2009, Satria and Adhuri 2010, Thornton and Kitka 2010
Improve management practices in commercial fisheries Moore 2003, Price and Rulifson 2004, Harnish and Willlison 2009, Moreno et al. 2007a, Szuster and Albasri 2010
Resolve management disputes Davis et al. 2004, Dowsley and Wenzel 2008
Assess parametric fisheries management Acheson and Wilson 1996
Protocols for incorporating GIS and LTK Calamia 1999, Close and Hall 2006, St. Martin and Hall-Arber 2008
GIS mapping of mapping local fishing areas Anuchiracheeva et al. 2003
GIS mapping of spawning and nursery areas Knutsen et al. 2010, Thornton et al. 2010
Classification of remote sensing imagery Lauer and Aswani 2008
Develop expert system models Mackinson 2001, Grant and Berkes 2007
Develop parametric indicators Wilson et al. 2006
Inform marine spatial planning Cinner et al. 2010
Develop and
inform conservation strategies
Identify essential habitats Bergmann et al. 2004
Bringing together fisher and scientist knowledge Akimichi 2001
Construction of artificial reefs Kurien 2001
Assess effectiveness of conservation zone Baird and Flaherty 2005
Assess conservation status of species Dulvy and Polunin 2004
Determine local extinction vulnerability of species in IUCN hotspots Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2011
Identify potential environmental and human-related factors impacting beluga whales Carter and Nielsen 2011
Inventory the disappearance of certain fish Lavides et al. 2010
Improve conservation through targeted data collection Cavaleri Gerhardinger et al. 2006, Richmond et al. 2007, Cavaleri Gerhardinger et al. 2009b
Study fisher perception of conservation efforts Rosa et al. 2005
Inform mangrove restoration Biswas et al. 2009
Creation and evaluation of marine protected areas Aswani and Hamilton 2004, Scholz et al. 2004, Aguilar-Perera et al. 2006, Aswani and Lauer 2006, Mallory et al. 2006, Aswani et al. 2007, Mow et al. 2007, Aswani and Vaccaro 2008, Ban et al. 2008, Ban et al. 2009, Cavaleri Gerhardinger et al. 2009a, Espinoza-Tenorio et al. 2010