Table 1. Conceptual framework of case study 1: boreal forest, northeastern Canada.

Conceptual framework Boreal forest case study In the model
Social, economic, and political setting Economic development: logging companies.
Government policies: species at risk act.
Not represented.
The setting serves as the context behind the creation of the model.
Resource system Sector: forest.
Boundaries: number of companies, management units.
Size: 72,000 km2.
Predictability: medium.
Location: Côte Nord, Quebec, Canada.
Explicitly modeled.
Resource units Mobility: none.
Replacement rate: at the scale of the century.
Economic value: high.
Spatial and temporal distribution: crucial.
Not explicitly represented.
The resource (wood) is found more abundantly in some land cover types, which are explicitly represented in the model.
Governance system Provincial Ministry of Natural Resources and Wildlife. Modeled indirectly via scenarios provided by the model end-user.
Users Number: 2 (Arbec, Abitibi-Bowater).
Socioeconomic attribute: logging companies.
Importance of resource to them: crucial.
They can cut according to different techniques.
Not represented.
Users are implicitly included through the construction of roads and cuts in the scenarios.
Interactions Harvesting level: high.
Conflicts: competing economic and conservation priorities.
Investment: industry, government ,and university sources.
Not represented.
The model itself is a tool to improve communication between the governance system and the users, and to allow for a better understanding of the resource system by both parties.
Outcomes Ecological performance measures: forest regrowth (wood), biodiversity (caribou conservation). Explicitly modeled (caribou) and not represented (wood).
Related ecosystems Wolf, caribou, and moose.
Herbivores food: lichen, leaves, and shrubs.
Explicitly modeled.