Fig. 2. Simulation of a social-ecological system using a bottom-up approach. The model represents local interactions between human and biophysical components (users and resource units) in a regional landscape (resource system). These interactions give rise to emergent patterns and processes (outcomes) in the system. Components may re-organize or modify their behavior in response to emergent outcomes, giving rise to feedback loops within the system. As shown here, and in the three case studies presented in this article, the actions taken by the governance system, in the form of policy and management scenarios, are typically input to the model by a human end-user.