Table 2. General characteristics of the twelve watersheds considered in this study.


Basin Name Scale Population (millions) River Length (km)/ Basin Size(km2) Primary water uses Major water resource issues
Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint Interstate (Alabama, Florida, Georgia) 6 (most in Atlanta, GA) 843/
48,500
Urban and agricultural water supply, fisheries Adequate timing and quantity of river flow
Columbia International
(British Columbia, Idaho, Oregon Washington, Montana)
3.7 2000/
675,000
Hydropower, irrigation, water supply, navigation and recreation “Most dammed river system in the world”, flooding, impact of dams upon fisheries (endangered salmon)
Crocodile International
(South Africa, Swaziland, Mozambique)
0.6 320/
10,450
Irrigation, tourism, wildlife conservation Water scarcity and human poverty
Fraser Provincial (British Columbia) 3.3 1375/
234,000
Salmon fisheries, irrigation, urban water supply, transportation, recreation Estuarine water quality, Flooding, Negative impacts to fisheries (endangered salmon)
Hudson Interstate
(5 states, 93% in NY)
8 508/
34,500
Urban water supply, irrigation Contaminated sediments, water quality, invasive species (water chestnut, zebra mussels)
King’s Bay & Crystal River Regional/Local
(1 county, Florida)
0.1 11/
637
Urban water supply, Conservation/tourism Water quantity and quality in King’s Bay; invasive aquatic macrophytes; endangered manatee
Ocklawaha Regional
(5 counties, Florida)
0.3 177/
7200
Urban and agricultural supply, recreation Channelization, water quality (nitrogen and phosphorus), invasive macrophyte species
Peace Regional
(4 counties, Florida)
0.8 241/
6086
Phosphate mining, urban and agricultural supply Saltwater intrusion, water quantity/quality in Charlotte Harbor
Sacramento Regional
(California)
2.0 719/
69,500
Urban and agricultural water supply Water quantity and quality (esp. salinity, mercury), flooding
St. Mary’s Interstate
(Georgia, Florida)
0.01 209/
4170
Industry, agriculture, commercial and recreational fishing Water quality (industrial effluents, septic tanks)
Suwannee Interstate
(Georgia, Florida)
 
0.3 394/
27,684
Agriculture/silviculture, recreation Water quality (nitrates)
Zambezi International
(8 countries, especially Zambia, Zimbabwe)
32 4400/
1.4 million
Hydroelectricity, mining, subsistence agriculture, wildlife conservation Severe poverty, disrupted flow/ sedimentation regime due to 86 dams