Table 1. The most important historical changes cited by the informants to have occurred during their lifetime, separated by age and wealth groups.

Age group Young Middle Old
Wealth group poor poor mid. rich poor mid. rich Tot.
Number of informants 2 3 3 1 2 3 4 18
Historical change:
Reduced pasture/milk production per cow 1 (1) 2 2 2 1 (1) 3 (1) 11 (3)
Decrease in number of cattle per family 2 (2) 1 (1) 2 2 7 (3)
Increase in population density 2 (1) 2 1 1 (1) 6 (2)
Cessation of seasonal migration of cattle 3 1 1 1 6
Decline of forest cover below the tree line 1 (1) 2 (1) 1 2 6 (2)
Decreased rainfall 1 (1) 1 (1) 2 (1) 4 (3)
Arrival of agriculture/barley (at lower elevations) 1 (1) 2 (1) 3 (2)
Fencing of grazing land in the forest 1 1 1 3
Cessation of the landlord system 1 (1) 1 (1)
Increased peace and stability 1 (1) 1 (1)
Increased education levels 1 1
Decrease in honey production 1 1
Decrease in numbers of hyena/leopards 1 1
Decrease in mountain nyala§ 1 1
No difference 1 (1) 1 (1)
Each informant spontaneously mentioned 2–5 different factors. For each factor, the number of informants who stated this first (indicating its importance) is given in brackets. The total number of informants who mentioned each factor is given in the last column.
The age groups are Young (20 to 29 years), Middle-aged (30 to 49 years), and Old (50 to ~90 years).
§Tragelaphus buxtoni, a large antelope