Table 2. Peaks of capital, drivers, shifting states, and evidence of resilience across scales in the Malga ecosystem.

Stand Field Malga Landscape
Peak of Capital Measure
(within adaptive cycle described by changes in evaluation of vegetation characteristics)
 
1) Maximum sustainable grass production
2) Maximum score of desired Natura 2000 species attributes (See Table 1)
 
1) As at stand including control of weed species
2) Optimal vegetation mosaic dynamics through maintenance of conservation grazing
 
1) Maximum sustainable use of land
2) Maximum sustainable score for the site
 
1) Local community targets for Malga delivery of nature conservation and agricultural objectives
2) Natura 2000 experts’ targets
 
Drivers of ecological adaptive cycles
Note: Manager knowledge (part of knowledge capital in a socioeconomic domain) is pivotal driver across all scales of the ecological domain
 
1) Grazing practices and other agricultural interventions (normally defined at higher scale)
2) Natural succession (influenced by management interventions)
 
1) management intervention (e.g., weed control, manure practices)
2) manager intervention (e.g., clearing scrub)
 
1) definition of agricultural potential (influenced by economic drivers and community cultural contexts, which might elsewhere be described in separate socioeconomic domains)
2) definition of conservation values and resource availability for conservation management
 
1) As for Malga level but influenced by a wider range of actors and economic drivers (e.g., dairy production)
2) As for Malga level but influenced by a wider range of actors (e.g., tourism) and upper scale processes (e.g., provincial funding strategy)
 
Conditions for shifting of cycle state
 
1) Loss of production

2) Loss of Natura 2000 key species and/or vegetation stand attributes
 
1) Weed invasion and loss of hay production
2) Loss of Natura 2000 score through changed balance of mosaics
 
1) Loss of high quality grazing land
2) Loss of Natura 2000 priority habitats
 
1) Loss of profitability for local farmers
2) Loss of valuable species in the landscape
 
Evidence of adaptive management (likely outcome of resilience)
 
1) Stability of desired grass/herb mixture
2) Stability of phytosociological unit
 
1) As per stand
2) Balance between natural succession and desired vegetation types
 
Balance of land-use forms of production delivering a variety of ecosystem services to different sectors of users, through coordinated interventions (e.g., grazing policy, use of hay, land rotation, balances with forestry regulations)