Table 4. Derivation of predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) values for anti-fouling compounds (AFC). The value used in the Loch Fyne simulation are shown in bold.


AFC Test
organisms
Quantity measured Value
(µg L-1)
Factor PNEC
(µg L-1)
Reference
ZPT (zinc pyrithione) Selenastrum capricornutum (1) PNEC 0.03 1 0.03 Yamada (2007)
ZPT Selenastrum capricornutum (1) NOEC 7.8 1 7.8 Ward et al. (1994) cited in Madsen et al. (2000)
ZPT Thalassiosira pseudonana (2) 96 hr
EC50
1.9
1.6 – 2.3:
(95% CI)
1000 0.0019 Bao et al. (2008)
Dichlo-fluanid Selenastrum capricornutum (1) 72 hr
LOEC
50 +/- 0.87 100 0.50 Fernández-Alba et al. (2002)
Zineb Chlorella pyrenoidosa (3) 96 hr
EC50
180 1000 0.180 Pesticide Action Network, URL: www.pesticideinfo.org
Test organisms: (1) a freshwater desmid; (2) a marine diatom; (3) a freshwater green alga
Acronyms:
NOEC: AFC concentration at which there is no observed effect;
LOEC: lowest concentration of the AFC at which there is an observed effect;
EC50: concentration of the AFC at which the observed effect (typically, death) is 50%;
Times are duration of experiments.
Values calculated by authors.