Table 3. Links between the different entities within social-ecological systems, together with examples and potential problems as defined by Anderies et al. (2004).

Link Examples Potential problems
(1) Between resource and resource users Availability of water at time of need/availability of fish Too much or too little water/too many uneconomic fish—too many valued fish
(2) Between users and public infrastructure providers Voting for providers
Contributing resources
Recommending policies
Monitoring performance of providers
Indeterminacy/lack of participation
Free riding
Rent seeking
Lack of information/free riding
(3) Between public infrastructure providers and public infrastructure Building initial physical structure
Regular maintenance
Overcapitalization or undercapitalization
Disrupting, temporal and spatial patterns of resource use
Monitoring and enforcing rules Cost/corruption
(4) Between public infrastructure and resource Impact of infrastructure on the resource level Ineffective
(5) Between public infrastructure and resource dynamics Impact of infrastructure on the feedback structure of resource-harvest dynamics Ineffective, unintended consequences
(6) Between resource users and public infrastructure Coproduction of infrastructure itself, maintenance of works, monitoring and sanctioning No incentives/free riding
(7) External forces on resource and infrastructure Severe weather, earthquake, landslide, new roads Destroys resource and infrastructure
(8) External forces on social actors Major changes in political system, migration, commodity prices, and regulation Conflict, uncertainty, migration, greatly increased demand