Table 2. Entities involved in social-ecological systems together with examples and potential problems as identified by Anderies et al. (2004).

Entities Examples Potential problems
A. Resource Water source Uncertainty
Fishery Complexity/uncertainty
B. Resource users Farmers using irrigation Stealing water, getting a free ride on maintenance
Fishers harvesting from inshore fishery Over harvesting
C. Public infrastructure providers Executive and council of local users’ association Internal conflict or indecision about which polices to adopt
Government bureau Information loss
D. Public infrastructure Engineering works Wear out over time
Institutional rules Memory loss over time, deliberate cheating -
External environment Weather, economy, political system Sudden changes as well as slow changes that are not noticed