Table 8. Factors Contributing to Failures of Adaptive Comanagement


Description Number of Items Number of Passages
Actual 16 24
Conflict of interests of those involved 7 8
Power asymmetries among those involved 4 8
Insufficient resources (financial, human, technical, etc.) 4 5
Restrictive policies or institutions 3 3
Absence of multi-stakeholder commitment 2 3
Deficiencies/inconsistencies in communication, information, knowledge 3 3
Unclear privileges, guidelines, and responsibilities 2 2
Short-term outlook 2 2
Inability to learn, adapt, problem solve, or self-organize 2 2
Lack of leadership 1 1
Lack of understanding of ACM process 1 1
Ecological disturbances 1 1
Absence of social networks 1 1
Inability to make decisions, problems with decision-making process 1 1
Poorly developed civil society 1 1
Lack of homogeneity among resource systems and users 1 1
Potential 16 27
Conflict of interests of those involved 7 12
Inability to learn, adapt, problem solve, or self-organize 7 8
Restrictive policies or institutions 5 5
Lack of legitimate representation of stakeholders 5 5
Insufficient resources (financial, human, technical, etc.) 3 3
Power asymmetries among those involved 2 2
Unclear privileges, guidelines, and responsibilities 2 2
Short-term outlook 2 2
Deficiencies/inconsistencies in communication, knowledge, information 2 2
Inability to make decisions, problems with decision-making process 2 2
Defensiveness 1 1
Absence of multi-stakeholder commitment 1 1
Inadequate amount of time for ACM to develop 1 1
Lack of leadership 1 1
Lack of understanding of ACM process 1 1
Ecological disturbances 1 1
Absence of social networks 1 1
Problem of fit between ecosystem and institution 1 1
Unbalanced approach to ethics 1 1
Misconstruing effectiveness for success 1 1
Failure to seize windows of opportunity 1 1