Table 4. Potential outcomes of adaptive comanagement


Description Number of Items Number of Passages
Development of adaptive capacity 24 36
Social–ecological resilience 18 25
Sustainable resource use 16 21
Enhanced efficiency and effectiveness of management 17 20
Enhanced livelihoods 8 15
Creative ideas for solving problems 8 15
Devolution of power 5 7
Increased collaboration 6 6
Broader-based legitimization for management 5 6
Enhanced communication and negotiations 4 5
Resolution of conflict 5 5
Increased participation and engagement by stakeholders or participatory decision making 5 5
Increased income 4 4
Increased equity in decision making 4 4
Increased equity in distribution of benefits and costs 3 4
Increased self-confidence and skills of locals 4 4
Increased awareness of challenges and current flaws and resource health 4 4
Increased resource health 3 4
Changes in perceptions and actions 3 3
Increased equity in access to resource 3 3
New or modified institutional arrangements 3 3
Improvements in human and social capital 2 2
Better defined rights and responsibilities 2 2
Reduced vulnerability 2 2
Linking of knowledge 2 2
Reduced transaction costs 1 1
Reduced resource health 1 1
Illegitimate decisions 1 1
Creation of conditions for management 1 1
Increased capacity in community 1 1
Promotion of social and cultural values 1 1
Overcome capacity challenges 1 1
Modification of unsustainable social–ecological feedbacks 1 1
Increase in protectionist practices that disadvantage vulnerable users 1 1
Agreed-upon sanctions 1 1
New cooperative undertakings beyond specific issue 1 1
Building of memory 1 1
Strengthened institutions 1 1
Community cohesion 1 1
Resource management plans 1 1