Table 3. Actual outcomes of adaptive comanagement


Description Number of Items Number of Passages
Resolution of conflict or dispute 8 17
Increased participation by or engagement of marginalized stakeholders 4 15
Development of adaptive capacity 7 13
Increased collaboration 4 12
Economic development 3 10
Enhanced communication and negotiation 3 10
Devolution of power 2 10
Improved resource health 7 9
Achievement of developmental goals 3 9
Increased interest or investment in resource health 3 8
Enhanced livelihoods 3 8
Relationships of trust 1 8
Reduced power imbalances 2 8
Generation, sharing, and integration of knowledge 6 8
Increased accountability and transparency 2 8
Increased self-confidence and skills among locals 3 8
New or modified institutional arrangements 4 8
Learning 6 7
Changes in perceptions and actions 2 7
Enhanced efficiency and effectiveness of management 5 7
Creative ideas for solving problems 5 6
Decrease in illegal resource use 3 6
Social–ecological resilience 3 4
Development of networks 4 4
Increased equity in distribution of costs and benefits 1 4
Broader based legitimization for management 3 4
Unequal distribution of benefits 2 3
Increased well-being 3 3
Resource management plans 2 3
Failure to improve livelihoods 2 2
Empowerment of stakeholders 2 2
Improved access to resources 1 2
Failed institutionalization of attitudes 1 1
Community development 1 1
Animosity from government 1 1
Failure to lessen state control 1 1
Absent empowerment through material gains 1 1
Changes in environmental parameters 1 1
Strengthened institutions 1 1
No changes in resource condition 1 1
Increases in supporting mechanisms 1 1
Temporary increase in explicit conflict 1 1
Increased transaction costs (time) 1 1
Proliferation of illegal activities 1 1