Fig. 4. Figure 4(a) reproduces Carpenter and Brock’s (2008) figure relating adaptive capacity, A(S), to stress, S, for direct comparison to the new, extended figure provided in 4(b). Figure 4(b) incorporates insights from other resilience and development literature perspectives to extend Carpenter and Brock’s original model along a new axis of connectedness, C. The location of the original figure is indicated by the heavy line at C = 5. As connectedness increases, the performance of disparate parts of the system is bound together more tightly and the transitions between the ‘rigidity trap,’ ‘adaptive capacity,’ and ‘poverty trap’ regions become more abrupt. At very low levels of connectedness a rigidity trap of the sort described in the resilience literature is not possible.

Fig. 4