Fig. 1. As adapted from Holling and Gunderson (2002) a stylized depiction of the four ecosystem functions ( r, K, ω, α) and the flow of events among them. Arrows show flow speed in the cycle; closely spaced arrows represent slow change and long arrows represent rapid change. The cycle reflects change in two properties (1) the Y axis is potential inherent in accumulated resources; (2) the X axis is the degree of connected among controlling variables. The transition from the K phase to the ω phase is depicted here as ‘The Red Zone.’ Expression of biophilia or biological attraction is also represented, corresponding to the Y axis and potential. Low connectedness is associated with loosely connected elements whose behavior is dominated by external relations and variability. High connectedness is associated with elements whose behavior is dominated by internal relations that control or mediate external variability. The ‘back loop,’ in green, represents the stages during which urgent biophilia is likely expressed. The exit from the cycle at the left of the figure suggests the stage where the potential can leak away and where a ‘flip’ into a less organized and desirable system is likely. (Reproduced with permission of Island Press, Washington, DC.)

Fig. 1