Fig. 1. Framework for public participation in scientific research projects. Projects must balance inputs from scientific interests and public interests, but each project negotiates that balance differently (as represented by input arrows of different sizes). Projects also exhibit different outcomes for science, individuals (researchers or volunteers), and social–ecological systems, which may relate to the particular balance of inputs. Note feedback arrows: certain outcomes may reinforce certain interests—and therefore particular design emphases—as initiatives evolve over time. Quality public participation depends upon sufficient attention to public interests in the input stage, to identify questions and structure activities most likely to yield outcomes relevant to those interests.

Fig. 1