Fig. 2. In the traditional broad-scale view, state-wide landings occurred at a faster rate than that of the population, leading to declines in population and landings (dashed lines). Slowing the broad-scale rate of harvest is the implied policy. In an alternative view, emphasizing finer scale ecology, the mechanism leading to a decline in the population and harvests was the serial extirpation (flip) of numerous ledges (solid line), i.e., small local “systems”. The implied policy would be one that addresses the system state on each ledge.