Fig. 3. Grafting and renovation processes of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.)
rural forest: a transgenerational construction of tree architecture. (a) The ring graft, the oldest grafting system in CÚvennes; (b) Diversity of grafting techniques (Source: Travier and Pelen 1973); (c) Old grafted tree; (d) Severe pruning to restore production of old grafted trees; (e) Coppices used as rootstock for new grafts.