Table 2. Differences in vA, vS, and vP scores for different protest groups


Any form of protest Letter to newspapers Petition Public demonstration
NO YES NO YES NO YES NO YES
vA N 257 206 389 35 299 125 324 100
Mean
(SD)
4.22
(0.70)
4.48
(0.63)
4.30
(0.69)
4.68
(0.40)
4.27
(0.68)
4.48
(0.67)
4.28
(0.71)
4.50
(0.57)
t -4.23 -4.96 -2.91 -3.21
Sig. (2-tailed)
 
.000 .000 .004 .002
vS N 229 195 353 35 268 120 293 95
Mean
(SD)
3.75
(0.83)
4.08
(0.71)
3.87
(0.81)
4.16
(0.65)
3.80
(0.83)
4.1
(0.68)
3.86
(0.82)
4.02
(0.74)
t -4.31 -2.42 -3.88 -1.69
Sig. (2-tailed)
 
.000 .020 .000 .091 (n.s.)
vP N 228 194 351 35 267 119 291 95
Mean
(SD)
3.92
(0.80)
4.32
(0.67)
4.09
(0.78)
4.37
(0.65)
4.00
(0.78)
4.36
(0.71)
4.02
(0.81)
4.39
(0.60)
t -5.49 -2.09 -4.32 -4.84
Sig. (2-tailed)
 
.000 .037 .000 .000
Note: vA, vS, and vP are not normally distributed. The sample size is sufficiently large for the Central Limit Theorem to hold. We conducted nonparametric Mann-Whitney tests that highlighted the same significant differences with equivalent significance levels.