Fig. 2. An integrated conceptual framework for studying knowledge utilization in bridging organizations. The figure shows the approaches to studying learning in bridging organizations proposed in our research (middle column) and the suggested metrics associated with the operationalization of each (right column). The arrows indicate the research area from which the methods and metrics are drawn and how these feed into each of the two suggested approaches. The vertical arrow indicates that the two approaches are mutually complementary and should be pursued in tandem.