Table 3. Illustrative examples of the summarized differences among the case studies according to the categories of analysis for the typology


Typology category Summarized difference among types Case study illustrative example
Power sharing
Decision making level and control ICoG: Decision making defined by Indigenous law and culture and partner requirements; substantial Indigenous control Miriuwung-Gajerrong Cultural Planning: the Ord Final Agreement established a formal committee with a majority of Miriuwung-Gajerrong people as the decision making body. The Yawoorroong Miriuwung Gajerrong Yirrgeb Noong Dawang Aboriginal Corporation supports the committee with processes that empower localized decision making by Dawang, through an Indigenous governance structure.
ACoG: Decision making by agency and Indigenous people according to agreed structures, typically committees; substantial agency control Cape York Tenure Resolution: process is headed by a decision making committee comprising three State Government Ministers, the Australian Conservation Foundation, The Wilderness Society, Balkanu and the Cape York Land Council. Decisions on land tenure outcomes are underpinned by Indigenous Land Use Agreements, and require negotiation and Indigenous consent, thereby empowering Indigenous law and custom.
Rules-definition ICoG: Rules defined by Indigenous peoples as constrained by partner requirements Djelk Rangers: rules within Bawinanga Aboriginal Corporation, which host the Djelk Rangers, are mediated within the informal institution of the “smoko” room. Local Aboriginal elites with power based on seniority, Indigenous knowledge and customary authority negotiate with Aboriginal neo-elites whose power derives from modernizing projects, including the duties of the Djelk Rangers to protect biodiversity within parameters set by their government funding agencies.
Resource cultural values and property rights ACoG: Resources of contested value between industrial and Indigenous economies; Indigenous property rights defined and contained Eastern Kuku-Yalanji ILUA: focuses on recognition and regulation of people’s native title rights as custodians and managers of traditional country within highly contested tropical landscapes, while delivering statutory Aboriginal ownership of some areas of land.
AG: Resources highly valued by industrial economy, e.g., water in heavily used systems; few Indigenous property rights Wild Rivers: the marginalization of Indigenous peoples from Wild Rivers decision making reflects legislative regimes that have placed the control and regulation of water with the Crown and its agencies.
Participation
Participatory processes and functions ACoG: Indigenous rights-based negotiation, e.g., for Native Title Acts, cultural heritage clearances Wet Tropics Regional Agreement: Interim Negotiating Forum constituted an Aboriginal Negotiating Team and a Government Negotiating Team.
ICoG: Inclusivity that engages Indigenous people in new environmental institution-building Dhimurru: stresses their pride in their model of partnerships founded in Yolngu culture and the customary ways Yolngu care for country. This requirement of Indigenous agency to drive participation has resulted in the new environmental institution of a formal IPA Advisory Group of government and other stakeholders.
IG: Inclusivity that engages Indigenous people in new Indigenous institution-building Murray Lower Darling River Indigenous Nations: partnerships all contain acknowledgements of the traditional owners, their specific relationships with country, and the importance of their decision making structures.
Coordination ACoG: Whole-of-government coordination Healthy Country Healthy People: multiple departments coordinate delivery across environmental, socio-cultural and economic goals through a Steering Committee of government officers, with Indigenous organizations in an advisory role.
ICoG: Indigenous holistic place-based community empowerment Djabugay Indigenous land management techniques: arise from a perspective that places an Indigenous world view at the centre. Eleven aspects of Indigenous land management emanate from this centre: tradition and Laws/lores; elders; spiritual; land and sea country; employment; youth; health; obligation and responsibility; community rangers; education; and cultural training.
Intercultural purpose
Environmental management purposes AG: Usually single or dual purpose, managing specific threats, species or areas TWS Indigenous Conservation Program: describes their purpose in working with Indigenous traditional owners as to achieve protection and management of Cape York Peninsula and the return of homelands to the control and management of its traditional owners;
ICoG: Multiple purposes, reflecting Indigenous-centred holistic community planning Ngarrindjeri Nation Sea Country Plan: has multiple goals, ranging across healthy people, healthy country, equitable benefit sharing, health and spiritual well-being of Ngartjis (special animals), ongoing occupation of country and respect for law.
Purpose of Indigenous roles ACoG: Equity plus recognition of specifically defined rights Urannah Station: Indigenous engagement at Urannah Station, part of the Indigenous Land Corporation’s (ILC) program of works, is aimed at achieving equity for Indigenous Australians through halving the employment gap within a decade.
ICoG: Reconciliation, long-term, lasting resolution of issues Victorian Native Title Settlement Framework: explicitly recognizes reconciliation within its objects, which encompass social and economic upliftment, grievance resolution and rights recognition.
Purpose of Indigenous development AG: Development as modernization and technology transfer Mornington Station: through the Ecofire Project, the Australian Wildlife Conservancy facilitates involvement of Indigenous community members, including provision of training in prescribed fire management using aerial incendiaries provided by the Fire and Emergency Services Authority.
ICoG: Indigenous empowerment and community development Kimberley Appropriate Economies Roundtable: promoted theories of ecological economics and Indigenous governance, aimed at empowering Indigenous peoples and other citizens to build their own planning, decision making and governance capacity.
Capacity-building ICoG: Focus on Indigenous and non-Indigenous functionality in both Indigenous and settler society Lake Condah Sustainable Development Project: a sophisticated approach to simultaneously build Indigenous and nonindigenous capacity and pathways to sustainability has been developed through Lake Condah Learning.
IG: Focus on building trust and relationships among diverse Indigenous groups Northern Australia Indigenous Land and Sea Management Alliance: regularly hosts events that bring together Indigenous peoples from across the north to build common agendas, such as the Northern Australian Indigenous Experts Water Futures Forum.