Fig. 4. Net benefit of forest landscape restoration (FLR), based on assessment of the values of four ecosystem services (carbon storage (“carbon”), non-timber forest products (“ntfp”), timber production (“timber”) and nature-related tourism activities (“tourism”)). The net benefits were estimated through estimation of the combined net value of these ecosystem services across the study landscapes resulting from FLR, taking the costs of restoration activities into account. Restoration scenarios were: P, passive (no restoration costs); PP, passive with protection (costs of fencing and fire suppression); and A, active (costs of tree planting, fencing, and fire suppression). The four study areas are: CV, Central Veracruz, Mexico; ET, El Tablon, Mexico; NH, Nahuel Huapi, Argentina; Q, Quilpue, Chile. Figure redrawn from the analyses presented by Birch et al. (2010).