Fig. 1. The process of FLR, and its key elements.


Fig. 1
 
As noted in the text, FLR is a flexible process that will need to be adapted to each individual ecological, socioeconomic, cultural, and political context. The elements illustrated here were those examined in the ReForLan project, and reflect the proposed core principles of FLR (see main text). Stakeholder consultation should occur throughout the FLR process, particularly when identifying where and how restoration actions should be implemented. Such site-level decisions should be made within a landscape context. Cost-benefit analysis can be performed by assessing both the costs and benefits of FLR to people, for example through the spatial analysis and valuation of ecosystem services. Such cost-benefit analysis should inform the selection of the restoration actions undertaken on particular sites. The need for adaptive management is illustrated by the iterative relationship between restoration implementation and monitoring and evaluation.