Table 8. Influences of outside interventions and ability to follow local customs


Community Description of case
Mexico
Caobas Follow local governance customs. Commercial timber management practices and legal norms brought in from outside. There have been some minor adaptations to local practices.
Yaxcabá Follow local customs for all forest management. Limited outside intervention and very limited outside enforcement. Government offered to help with a reforestation project, but the Assembly voted against it because people did not want to lose land for agriculture.
Naranjal Poniente Follow local governance customs. Commercial timber management practices and legal norms brought in from outside. There have been some minor adaptations to local practices.

Brazil
Mazagão Following local customs for now, although illegal. Outside intervention (future government-sponsored community forestry project) will change governance structure over forest resources and management practices (see Hajjar et al. 2011).
OCT Follow local customs for NWFP management. Outside intervention introduced a new furniture-making business for them, and brought scientific legal management.
MAFLOPS Are not involved in timber management – this is all an outside intervention. Legal timber management is a foreign activity to the mostly agriculturist colonists; the logging company fills a need by providing all management services. However, this perpetuates a cycle of dependency on outside intervention, since little to no training, technology, or forest knowledge transfer occurs from the company to the colonist. The colonist benefits monetarily from a one-time deal, but is not left empowered to manage his/her forest in the future. They follow local customs for other resource use.