Fig. 5. Phase diagrams for the ecosystem’s dynamics with interspecies competition for different levels of complementarity between ecosystem services in consumption, σ. Dynamics in each diagram are characterized by dx/dt > 0 (< 0) left (right) of the green line, and dw/dt > 0 (< 0) below (above) the red line. Blue lines indicate saddlepaths. The upper diagram shows the case of low complementarity (σ = 0.95), the middle diagram displays mild complementarity (σ = 0.4) and the lower diagram high complementarity (σ = 0.05). Parameter values for all diagrams: ρx = ρw = 0.5, κx = κw = 1, γx = γw = 0.25, νx = νw = 1, α = 0.6, n = 1.


Fig. 5