Table 3. Synergies and trade-offs among the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), Water Framework Directive (WFD), and Climate Action and Energy (CARE) package.


Common Agricultural Policy Water Framework Directive Climate Action and Energy package
Common Agricultural Policy

-Synergies
- EAFRD funding can be used to support programs in the field of water management.
EAFRD funding can be used to support programs in the field of climate change.

-Trade-offs - SPS delays development of sustainable farming and thereby delays meeting of WFD objectives.
SPS delays development of sustainable farming and thereby delays meeting of CARE objectives.

-Recommended action for policy integration - Allocate more funds directly to PES and farmers implementing measures specified by the RMBPs.
Allocate more funds directly to PES and farmers implementing measures specified by CARE.
Water Framework Directive

-Synergies
When RMBPs include measures to be implemented by the agricultural sector.

-

None, as climate-change mitigation measures are not included in the WFD.


-Trade-offs

When RMBPs argue that public interest in rural development makes it necessary to accept less stringent objectives.

- Resources allocated to adaption in RMBPs will reduce resources available for mitigation.

-Recommended action for policy integration
Measures for the agricultural sector in all RMBPs, including GHG-mitigating soil-management strategies.

-

GHG-mitigation potential of water-saving measures should be quantified and counted as emission credits.
Climate Action and Energy package

-Synergies

Increased incentive to develop renewable energy technologies for the agricultural sector.


None, as climate change mitigation measures are not included in the WFD.

-

-Trade-offs


Unbalanced focus on bioenergy may harm rural development.

Establishment of hydropower plants may put water resources at risk.

-
-Recommended action for policy integration
Abandon the 10% minimum share of biofuels.

Applications to establish hydropower plants should be carefully evaluated against the RMBP for the affected water body.
-