Table 1. Effects of GHG-mitigating soil-management strategies on energy security and water resources.

Soil-management strategy Management options Effect on GHG emissions† Effect on
energy security
Effect on
water resources
Crop management Permanent grassland
Temporary grassland
Leguminous crops
High carbon crops
High-yielding varieties
Replace bare fallow
Winter cover crops

0.4-1.0 t CO2-eq/ha-1/yr-1 +
+
+
+
+
-
-
+
+
+/-
+
+
+
+

Nutrient management Fertilizer efficiency
Reduce fertilizer inputs
0.3-0.6 t CO2-eq/ha-1/yr-1 +
+
+
+

Tillage and residue management Conservation tillage
Residue incorporation
0.2-0.7 t CO2-eq/ha-1/yr-1 +
(-)
+
+

Water management Deficit irrigation schemes
Crop diversification
Improve irrigation
1.1 t CO2-eq/ha-1/yr-1 +
+
+
+
+
+

Soil restoration Re-establish water table
Revegetation
Manure application
38.0-70.2 t CO2-eq/ha-1/yr-1 -
-
-
-
+
-

Bioenergy First generation biofuels
Second generation biofuels
Electricity from biomass
0.2-0.4 t CO2-eq/ha-1/yr-1 +
+
+
+/-
+/-
+/-
†(Smith et al. 2007)