Table 1. A scoping exercise was carried out to identify ecosystem service benefits possibly affected by brownification. Key informants were contacted and data collected. This was done to identify those ecosystem service benefits most likely affected. Two groups of stakeholders were subsequently chosen for further study. We use “ecosystem service benefits” to mean benefits directly used by humans.

Ecosystem service benefit Local key informants and data collection Conclusion
bathing in lakes head of Kristianstad tourist office: municipality website with data on location and status of water quality for outdoor bathing facilities run by the municipality; interview. No outdoor bathing facilities run by the municipality are affected by River Helge å. Unofficial outdoor baths not explored.
bathing in the sea owner of largest shorefront Hotel, head of Kristianstad tourist office, managers Biosphere Office; interview. No indication of change in bathing number or behavior and no complaints. 15,000 people may visit the beach on a sunny day.
recreational fishing chair of regional recreational fishing association; two reports from the Biosphere Office on status of freshwater fish, interview. No indication of change in the number of fishing licenses sold or interest in recreational fishing.
bird watching manager from Biosphere Office; two reports from the Biosphere Office on bird populations, interview. No indication of change in birdwatching behavior.
attractiveness of the coastline owner of largest shorefront Hotel, head of Kristianstad tourist office; municipality data on level of tourism in the region, interview. No indication of change in tourism to the coast linked to brownification.
grazing and haymaking on the meadows farmers on the meadows; interview with two farmers. Brown deposition on grass noticed. Expressed concern for brownification affecting farming.
irrigation for crops former chair of the largest irrigation system in the area (and Sweden); maps on irrigation systems, interview. No indication of brownification affecting irrigation behavior.
ecotourism manager from Biosphere Office, head of Kristianstad tourist office, owner of largest shorefront Hotel; interview, web search. 14 businesses were identified as ecotourism by the tourist office. The link to water quality and brownification was judged weak.
eel fishing eel fishers; map of placement of fishing gear, interview with two fishers Strokes of brown water noticed, expressed concern for brownification affecting catch.
drinking water municipality representative responsible for water; interview, municipality website on water. No indication of brownification affecting municipality drinking water supply. Kristianstad municipality switched to using ground water in 1941.